What are the various degrees of crimes in New Jersey? What are some of the possible penalties?
2C:43-1. Degrees of crimes
a. Crimes defined by this code are classified, for the purpose of sentence, into four degrees, as follows:
- (1) Crimes of the first degree;
- (2) Crimes of the second degree;
- (3) Crimes of the third degree; and
- (4) Crimes of the fourth degree.
A crime is of the first, second, third or fourth degree when it is so designated by the code.
An offense, declared to be a crime, without specification of degree, is of the fourth degree.
b. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a crime defined by any statute of this State other than this code and designated as a high misdemeanor shall constitute for the purpose of sentence a crime of the third degree.
Except as provided in sections 2C:1-4c. and 2C:1-5b. and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a crime defined by any statute of this State other than this code and designated as a misdemeanor shall constitute for the purpose of sentence a crime of the fourth degree.
2C:43-2 Sentence in accordance with code; authorized dispositions.
a. Except as otherwise provided by this code, all persons convicted of an offense or offenses shall be sentenced in accordance with this chapter.
b. Except as provided in subsection a. of this section and subject to the applicable provisions of the code, the court may suspend the imposition of sentence on a person who has been convicted of an offense, or may sentence him as follows:
- To pay a fine or make restitution authorized by N.J.S.2C:43-3 or P.L.1997, c.253 (C.2C:43-3.4 et al.); or
- Except as provided in subsection g. of this section, to be placed on probation and, in the case of a person convicted of a crime, to imprisonment for a term fixed by the court not exceeding 364 days to be served as a condition of probation, or in the case of a person convicted of a disorderly persons offense, to imprisonment for a term fixed by the court not exceeding 90 days to be served as a condition of probation; or
- To imprisonment for a term authorized by sections 2C:11-3, 2C:43-5, 2C:43-6, 2C:43-7, and 2C:43-8 or 2C:44-5; or
- To pay a fine, make restitution and probation, or fine, restitution and imprisonment; or
- To release under supervision in the community or to require the performance of community-related service; or
- To a halfway house or other residential facility in the community, including agencies which are not operated by the Department of Human Services; or
- To imprisonment at night or on weekends with liberty to work or to participate in training or educational programs.
Instead of or in addition to any disposition made according to this section, the court may postpone, suspend, or revoke for a period not to exceed two years the driver’s license, registration certificate, or both of any person convicted of a crime, disorderly persons offense, or petty disorderly persons offense in the course of which a motor vehicle was used.
In imposing this disposition and in deciding the duration of the postponement, suspension, or revocation, the court shall consider the severity of the crime or offense and the potential effect of the loss of driving privileges on the person’s ability to be rehabilitated. Any postponement, suspension, or revocation shall be imposed consecutively with any custodial sentence.
This chapter does not deprive the court of any authority conferred by law to decree a forfeiture of property, suspend or cancel a license, remove a person from office, or impose any other civil penalty. Such a judgment or order may be included in the sentence.
The court shall state on the record the reasons for imposing the sentence, including its findings pursuant to the criteria for withholding or imposing imprisonment or fines under sections 2C:44-1 to 2C:44-3, where imprisonment is imposed, consideration of the defendant’s eligibility for release under the law governing parole and the factual basis supporting its findings of particular aggravating or mitigating factors affecting sentence.
The court shall explain the parole laws as they apply to the sentence and shall state:
- the approximate period of time in years and months the defendant will serve in custody before parole eligibility;
- the jail credits or the amount of time the defendant has already served;
- that the defendant may be entitled to good time and work credits; and
- that the defendant may be eligible for participation in the Intensive Supervision Program.
Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (2) of subsection b. of this section, a court imposing sentence on a defendant who has been convicted of any offense enumerated in subsection a. of section 2 of P.L.1994, c.130 (C.2C:43-6.4) may not sentence the defendant to be placed on probation.